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A streetcar on the Beltline would be a train wreck

A MARTA illustration showing a cross-section of the type of track it would use for the majority of the Atlanta Streetcar's extension onto the Atlanta BeltLine's Eastside corridor, as shown in Sept. 12 and 13 meetings.

By Guest Columnist HANS KLEIN, an associate professor in the School of Public Policy at Georgia Tech.

Atlanta is at a turning point for transit. With explosive growth in population, employment and traffic, our city is ready to renew its commitment to transit and reduce its reliance on privately-operated automobiles. The good news is that MARTA and the City have big plans for deploying transit in the near future. The bad news is that those plans involve deploying streetcars on the Beltline.

MARTA’s planned streetcar extension on the Beltline’s eastside trail is a prisoner of the past, embracing an inherited streetcar technology that is not cost-effective and a historical right of way that bypasses the urban core. It is not too late for Atlanta to redirect today’s transit enthusiasm toward appropriate technologies and high-functioning routes. Without changes to today’s plan, the city will lock itself into low-functioning transit for decades to come.

The problems with today’s system are the right of way (the Beltline,) the technology (streetcar/rail,) and the timeline of deployment (now). The Beltline right of way is a tract of land that creates a continuous corridor through an otherwise complex urban landscape. Creating such a right of way afresh in today’s urban environment would be prohibitively expensive and legally infeasible. For this reason, the underutilized railroad beds that compose the Beltline are a godsend, offering up a route through Atlanta that no governmental decree could create from scratch. Small wonder then that in the early 2000’s transit enthusiasts would see this pre-existing right of way as the answer to their dreams, as it would allow uninterrupted inner-city transportation.

Klein is an Associate Professor in the School of Public Policy at Georgia Tech. His research focuses on transportation policy, Internet policy, and policy processes. He has advised the US Congress and the US Secretary of Transportation on intelligent transportation systems and has served as a policy analyst for the Transportation Research Board.

Sadly, however, while the Beltline right of way is indeed rare and valuable, it is not well-suited to urban transit. Civil War-era rail engineers created the Beltline to avoid the urban core, and it is exactly this urban core that any transit system needs to serve. On the Beltine right of way, “you can’t get there from here,” i.e. you can circle the city center, but you cannot get to the city center.

Transit systems the world over are designed as spokes radiating from the urban core out to residential areas, but the Beltline does not do this and cannot do this. The Beltline’s path through the city is exactly wrong for transit. The Beltline’s circular path is, however, perfect for recreation, which explains its unforeseen success as an inner-city linear park – which is all the more reason not to run streetcars on it.

The second problem with today’s transit plan is that it uses streetcars running on light rail. The economic and technical characteristics of streetcars are problematic: The up-front capital costs are very high, subsequent route changes are infeasible and the technology is so inflexible that a single double-parked car can bring a system to a grinding halt.

So what should be done instead? A host of new technologies offers better characteristics than streetcars. Elsewhere in Atlanta MARTA plans to deploy bus rapid transit (BRT). With a reserved right of way, BRT buses can provide all the functionality of light rail at a much lower cost and with nearer-term deployment. Moreover, BRT allows MARTA to standardize its technology, perhaps ending the need for expensive parallel maintenance facilities for buses and streetcars. In addition to BRT, MARTA last year successfully field-tested “on-demand” transit, in which a shuttle serves passengers’ specific destination.

Alongside such public sector alternatives to streetcars, nonprofits and private firms are delivering myriad new means of transport. Pioneered by the PATH Foundation, Atlanta now has an extensive network of multi-use trails, contributing to explosive growth in the use of scooters, e-bikes and regular pedal bikes. In a symbiotic development, private firms have blanketed the city with micro-mobility services for bike sharing and scooter sharing. Perhaps to its own surprise, Atlanta Beltline Inc. has evolved into a major operator of trails for such light individualized transportation (LIT) and has had to widen trails as it struggles to accommodate this explosion in alternative transportation. And of course, car-share systems like Uber, Lyft and even Zipcar have delivered flexible transportation services.

Expensive streetcars on immovable rail beds are a dinosaur technology from the last century — as Atlanta’s troubled streetcar system shows all too clearly. Moreover, the specific plan to extend today’s streetcar line to Virginia Highlands has terrible equity implications. Transit usage is far higher among lower-income residents, and those residents – many of whom are Black — tend to live on the south side of the city, far away from the planned streetcar’s east extension.

Flexible, lower-cost, IT-enabled transportation can better serve urban travelers. A radial system of bus rapid transit on arterials roads like North Avenue and Northside Drive (not to mention Summerhill Ave., Campbellton Road and the Clifton Corridor,) complemented by on-demand transit, light individualized transportation and ride-share services can provide better and more equitable service at lower cost with greater adaptability to future demand.

The final concern about today’s transit plan is that it seeks to deploy Beltline rail now. Even were streetcars to be deployed on the Beltline, they should only come after other deployments. What is needed first is transit on radial spokes, for that is the pattern of demand. Once such spokes are operating there might be some justification for a circular route, much as the I-285 perimeter highway eventually connected the I-20, I-75 and I-85 radial highways. Deploying transit on the Beltline perimeter route before deploying it on spokes reverses the logical order of deployment. Nor is there time pressure to deploy transit on the Beltline, since that right of way is secure and will still be there in 10 years. Far better is to build radial transit routes now and build peripheral connections later.

Atlanta needs transit, and Atlanta is embracing transit. That is good news. But we must choose wisely, for the decisions made today will shape the transit for decades to come. Transit planners must free themselves from both the shackles and the temptations of history – from an inherited and ineffective streetcar technology and from an alluring right of way that doesn’t serve passengers — and must instead look to the future. Less-costly transit technologies and more useful radial routes are the basis of successful transit. Today’s funds should be used to deploy BRT on radial routes, and a longer-term vision should embrace on-demand transit, light individualized transportation, micro-mobility, and a host of emerging transportation solutions.

Would you like to write a guest column for SaportaReport? The SR team strives to uplift and amplify the diverse perspectives in our community, and we want to hear from you! Email Editor Derek Prall to discuss the specifics.


  1. Cry Me a River January 27, 2023 6:21 pm

    Bingo. We have a winner. Well stated, Professor Klein. Now, how to make it happen?Report

  2. Steve Saenz January 28, 2023 7:31 pm

    “Expensive streetcars on immovable rail beds are a dinosaur technology from the last century — as Atlanta’s troubled streetcar system shows all too clearly.”


  3. Nunya Business January 29, 2023 9:29 am

    Who paid you to write this? New Flyer?Report

  4. Reader January 29, 2023 11:44 am

    There are some good points here about the cost savings using BRT. But to act line the belt line isn’t in the current day urban core is a joke. And this article totally ignores Marta intersecting at the urban core and the street car connecting to multiple Marta stations. That transfer is exactly what the writer is saying we need.Report

    1. MH ATL January 29, 2023 7:25 pm

      But Beltline transit as proposed DOESN’T intersect MARTA. It “crosses” Marta lines, but there are grade separations at every instance. With no additional new station at these crossings planned. A transfer is not walking down DeKalb to Inman Park or down Lee St. to West End.Report

  5. Nick January 29, 2023 3:02 pm

    Taking lanes away from car drivers on busy roads radiating from the urban core and giving them to BRT does not sound appealing.Report

    1. Cassandra January 31, 2023 10:57 am

      Doesn’t sound appealing to you, but to public transit riders, esp. if transit-dependent, it sounds great! I would definitely jump on a North Ave rapid transit bus to the Westside. Public transit by nature means less emphasis on private car travel. North is not that heavily traversed yet, good time to launch this BRT there.Report

  6. Nick January 29, 2023 3:06 pm

    “a single double-parked car can bring a system to a grinding halt.” How does this apply to the beltline?Report

    1. Ben February 2, 2023 4:16 pm

      Some how this supposed problem does not seem to be a problem in Zurich, Vienna, Munich or MilanReport

      1. Steve February 3, 2023 11:04 am

        It is [rarely] a problem, but those places and Kolkata India, Melbourne Australia have long-established, COMPREHENSIVE lightrail that does radiate out and criss crosses various nodes. They are Practical! People of all walks use it to commute.
        Beltline lightrail would be a white elephant and ruin the linear park aspect.
        There are so many better, cheaper, immediately deployable, more equitable, less disruptive, safer options to provide actual practical transit.Report

        1. Steve February 6, 2023 10:22 pm

          That last sentence is so true and so obvious. It defies logic as to why so few people get this.Report

  7. Reader #2 January 29, 2023 8:42 pm

    The arguments are all over the place and feel disingenuous.

    The writer acknowledges that the Beltline ROW itself is a unique opportunity to connect the city without having to fight private property owners. Then says we need radial BRT routes that would require purchasing RW throughout the city instead?

    The writer says BRT is equivalent to streetcar/light rail (questionable), then suggests on-demand shuttles and LIT vehicles?

    Also the writer talks about the equity of building this transit on the Eastside without understanding that connections to jobs on the Eastside is beneficial to everyone that uses the system.

    You can argue this thing either way, but at least do it in good faith.Report

  8. Hugh January 30, 2023 6:05 am

    No, getting around the city is very important to the people who live in the city. This is why the first subway line ever completed is the London Circle line.

    No, light rail is not a dinosaur technology. It is by far the chosen technology around the world to move the most people around the world in the smallest amount of space while concentrating development in specific areas.Report

    1. Steve February 3, 2023 11:07 am

      Actually the bicycle is “by far the chosen technology around the world to move the most people around the world in the smallest amount of space “.Report

    1. Mark F Arnold January 31, 2023 10:54 am


  9. Katharine January 30, 2023 4:17 pm

    I’ve often asked the question about why the streetcar is heading north into areas where ridership is lower. Serving the southside feels like a much bigger win for the Streetcar. And why is Marta proposing to destroy historic residential neighborhoods, especially in front of the birthplace of MLK. Instead of using a large boulevard like Edgewood Ave, which feels like it makes more sense by far, the intention is to claim imminent domain and wreck a historically black neighborhood. To hear that the reasoning for going down Auburn is because they don’t have a maintenance shed available if they change grade was a stupid reason for destroying O4W. As if Marta does any maintenance anyway since it has been out of service for months.Report

  10. Wilbur Fitzgerald January 30, 2023 9:06 pm

    Yes the proposed extension of a failed streetcar system will decimate narrow streets in the Old Fourth Ward and take existing congestion to total gridlock. MARTA should make innovation a priority with electric buses and new emerging technology in transportation in order to serve the entire City of Atlanta. The existing streetcar is more like a pricey theme park ride which solves no transportation problems in a city where growth demands flexibility and shifting priorities.Report

  11. JP January 30, 2023 11:15 pm

    Completely disagree with this LIT concept. We have had LIT aka our personal cars AND IT DOES NOT WORK. Furthermore, the push for this seems like a veiled attempt to further privatize an extremely necessary public good. The only type of “LIT” that we should be really focusing on are bikes. Creating a network of bikes throughout the city is a way more viable example rather than banking on ubers and app based scooter services to move a metro 8 million around. Also I agree with other commenters here that light rail is not the technology to be discounted. To tackle the transit challenges that we face, we must employ a variety of modalities.Report

  12. IP30307 January 30, 2023 11:37 pm

    With all of the development (schools, housing, businesses, entertainment, jobs, and shopping etc) literally being built right along the BeltLine– who says the notion of everybody needing (or wanting) to go to the city center/urban core is even the future, or necessary? That might be the idea that’s dated and in the past.Report

  13. stella jones January 31, 2023 2:43 am


  14. Rick Carswell January 31, 2023 9:53 am

    For an interesting counterpoint, go look up Walt Disney’s original plans regarding transportation around a novel city plan (known as E.P.C.O.T. even in 1966).Report

  15. WJ January 31, 2023 9:55 am

    Excellent article. Streetcar has already ruined Auburn Ave, we do not need it on the Beltline.Report

  16. SouthernHope January 31, 2023 10:03 am

    Lots of different issues here.
    1.I’m great with no mass transit on the Beltline….keep it as a running/biking/walking trail….its the heart of our active city.
    2. Streetcars are a particularly frustrating type of mass transit…the one downtown is hopeless (even when it was working) as it stops for literally everything and is an exercise in frustration.
    3. I’m done with Marta if all that happens in the future are buses with fancy names. What happened to the rail system that was supposed to go to Emory and the CDC? And how about that transit along I-20? There’s no vision, no dreams at Marta…..only endless studies over the past 7 years.Report

    1. Ben February 2, 2023 4:29 pm

      1/. The original concept of the Beltline was for transit with the current uses being a pleasant additional use of the RoW.
      2/. Sort of like being in car or bus. Street cars are exactly that…transit suing the streets to move people from poi t A to point B and has generally not historically had the word “rapid” attached.
      3/. I am a bit surprised with the item 3 comment coming from the same poster as items 1 and 2.Report

  17. JimLa January 31, 2023 10:44 am

    I have been saying similar things for years. Do we really want an overhead electrical grid of visual pollution on the Beltline? Look at the old photos of Atlanta, with all the electrical lines, and I am sure you will agree. There should be two paved paths one for people on wheels of any nature, that want to travel at higher speeds than those on the other trail which would be for walking, strollers and slow moving wheeled vehicles. The higher speed path could include some type of battery powered public transit vehicles. As noted in the article, vehicles that are not physically attached to the Beltline offer the best solution to change and adapt over time with the location of the demand generators. They would be quiet and not bother the neighbors that serve as the gateways to the Beltline.Report

  18. Stephanie Coffin January 31, 2023 11:56 am

    Another argument that has not been brought up is the huge lose of trees – canopy, shade, pollution abatement and water retention if the streetcar is put in place. Watching the video is like watching slow motion tree removal. From Irwin to Ponce is one of the few remaining treed areas of the Beltline. You don’t see trees being put back around the huge multi-family developments. The ambience of walking and riding will be forever impacted creating another heat island between the tall, very tall block development.Report

    1. IP30307 January 31, 2023 12:54 pm

      The trees have already been removed in anticipation of transit and any trees that have been planted since, have been done so with transit in mind.
      Transit has always been a part of the plan– sorry some of you didn’t realize that when you moved into the neighborhood and bought your $800K townhouses overlooking the BeltLine!
      Stop with the drama.Report

      1. ben dooley February 2, 2023 10:32 pm

        Thanks for bringing reason and clarity.Report

  19. John January 31, 2023 1:16 pm

    You can tell this guy has never actually worked in transit by his proposal for a radial system. These systems are the least efficient possible setup, requiring every trip that involves a transfer to travel to a city center. He honestly sounds like he’s part of the GM/Firestone conspiracy from the 20th century saying streetcars are obsolete. Glad he wasn’t my professor when I was at GT.Report

  20. Robert Johnson January 31, 2023 5:47 pm

    For the record, the x-section of the trail has not changed since the construction of the Eastside Trail a decade ago save for adding 1′ on each side for a wider shoulder.Report

  21. Charles Brewer February 1, 2023 10:35 am

    I agree with this 100%. The Beltline is simply not an appropriate route for transit, especially a streetcar. IMHO this is really quite obvious, but the availability of the Beltline ROW has been so inticing that varous people have been unable to resist the fantasy of pretending otherwise. But in the end, reality wins. I have been saying this, and getting in trouble for saying this, since about 2001. Hans, thank you for speaking up.Report

    1. ben dooley February 2, 2023 10:44 pm

      Please do a little research on the origins of the Beltline. You have it backwards. The Beltline is not designed as a pedestrian corridor that transit advocates are greedily trying to take over! From its conception in 1999 the ”reason to be” for the Beltline was a transit RoW corridor with the pedestrian uses being a fortuitous coincidental benefit .Report

      1. Carl Rider February 3, 2023 8:45 pm

        Change happens, Ben. Transit may have been the idea at origin, but that doesn’t mean the idea should have any permanency. Slap some tracks down on the Beltline and you immediately lower the appeal of the Beltline to all who currently use it or live along it. By the way, light rail is an absolute albatross. Regarding the current streetcar: It sounds crazy but we could have saved money by buying all riders a car and paying for their gas and insurance rather than building and operating the streetcar system. Absolutely ridiculousReport

    2. Cry Me a River February 9, 2023 4:21 pm

      Well said.Report

  22. here4beer February 1, 2023 3:40 pm

    Not a proponent for streetcars on the Beltline, however, Professor Klein is wrong about a few things:
    1. Hub and spoke transit (rail) is NOT what the world uses. Look at Tokyo. The transit system is a grid comprised of more than two systems (govt and private). See link https://www.kotsu.metro.tokyo.jp/eng/map/

    2. BRT (bus rapid transit) is a FAIL. During peak traffic, there will not be an unsaturated lane for buses to travel on. No amount of signal technology will work. People will drive their single occupant vehicles in those lanes. Maria Saporta has a more correct (and exasperated opinion of BRT somewhere on this site).

    3. Marta rail is radial hub and spoke and it is woefully inadequate. Plan a rail (light rail, heavy rail, or some dedicated form of transit independent of and unencumbered by vehicle traffic / roads) that is a grid with northern, central and southern EAST-WEST lines and three parallel NORTH-SOUTH lines.

    Here is the simple formula for transit to work in the metro and beyond.
    1.Make it accessible – no more than 20 minute walk to a station.
    2. People shouldn’t get wet waiting for the train (or whatever method of transit is employed). This means they shouldn’t sweat to death in the summer and should be sheltered from precip and wind in other seasons
    3. Operate it so it is clean, safe and pleasant. No panhandling, enforce reasonable personal hygiene (people who have coiled themselves should be removed), well lit stations and security presence.

    It will cost an incredible amount of money. Fund it. This will make Atlanta a truly world class city.

    Here is the simple formula for transit to work in the metro and beyond.
    1.Make it accessible – no more than 20 minute walk to a station.
    2. People shouldn’t get wet waiting for the train (or whatever method of transit is employed). This means they shouldn’t sweat to death in the summer and should be sheltered from precip and wind in other seasons
    3. Operate it so it is clean, safe and pleasant. No panhandling, enforce reasonable personal hygiene (people who have coiled themselves should be removed), well lit stations and security presence.

    It will cost an incredible amount of money. Fund it. This will make Atlanta a truly world class city.Report

  23. Southside resident February 2, 2023 8:39 am

    Hmm. This guy obviously doesn’t have to carry his groceries any distance, nor does he have to worry about paying his bills, if he thinks ubers and scooters are a better, more “equitable” solution to people getting around. BRT is laughable to me, though I have long thought small buses on small, intersecting, circular routes that connect with MARTA rail stations would be much more useful than what we currently have. Speaking as an older person: bikes and scooters are NOT the answer for everyone! And, also speaking as an older person, I remember voting the initial funding for the beltline as a future RAIL LINE, something that would actually connect especially south and westside neighborhoods, those ill-served by current MARTA rail. It is still needed. That Cambellton Rd rail: we need it!! Just like the Emory rail connection. Rail may be old technology, but in the places where it exists, it still works really well. The answer to congestion is not more vehicles on the already over-full roads, and expecting low-income folks to have to rely on uber is NOT equity!Report

    1. IP30307 February 2, 2023 9:05 am

      Great comment!!!Report

    2. ben dooley February 2, 2023 10:48 pm

      Preach it!!Report

  24. Chris February 2, 2023 1:15 pm

    The “transit as spokes” is NOT the only way transit works abroad and circular routes around city centers (and not always through the most central parts) are vital parts of many international transit systems! Consider the Yamanote line of Tokyo or (more similar in population to Atlanta) Berlin’s S-bahn. Even cities of very similar size and sprawl, like Melbourne Australia, are finding value in lines that don’t follow this spoke notion of transit. And indeed Atlanta has relatively low concentration in downtown/midtown compared to it’s size with lots of development further out that’s easier to get to bypassing downtown than going through it. Now, the lack of direct connections between the Beltline and the metro is a significant problem that will need to be addressed at some point, but a transportation corridor as available to walkers, bikers, and transit reflects the reality of the city’s spread outside downtown.

    As for tram versus bus, buses are valuable and important though they aren’t done particularly well in North America generally. But light rail lines offer smoother rides, simplify the problems of travel which makes eventual automation much simpler, reduces air quality issues from tires on pavement (not to mention exhaust fumes for the majority of buses that aren’t electric), and the stability of the route increases the predictability of mode share for businesses along the route. The failure of the downtown streetcar has nothing to do with the technology, as light rail lines are very successful in other US cities like Portland or Charlotte and in some places even more successful than Atlanta’s heavy rail (notably Calgary Canada). The problem with the streetcar was the route through downtown pretty much only as a tourist attraction. Given the increasing density of population and business along the beltline, it’s a place where the streetcar would be A) largely separate from vehicle traffic (especially if on the points it does cross traffic we do the smart thing and institute transit-priority traffic lights) and B) gives the fastest along the beltline trips.

    Now I would note that it’s less useful to have the connection be from downtown to the beltline than the true center of Atlanta’s population, Midtown to the beltline. Both still need a transfer to the North-South metro line to get to from anyone coming east-west since the streetcar’s connection to heavy rail is currently Peachtree station, and a midtown connection would be faster from anyone coming from the north. Ideally something going from either Midtown or North Ave station to the beltine (doing a connection to the east side first due to it’s greater development with a long term ideal of also reaching to the westside) would probably lead to more trips.

    So let’s do rail despite the upfront costs. Having an easier time reducing environmental impact, keeping pace with a technology that’s working well in other sprawly cities across North America and Australia, and giving the best chance of having a truly practical automated route that will keep longterm operating costs low are all benefits we can get here.Report

  25. Turner Hedenkoff February 3, 2023 9:00 am

    Did this guy just move here?
    Yes, the currest streetcar is crap, and sinking more money into it isn’t likely to make it much better. But BeltLine rail needs to be built ASAP, with connections to existing heavy rail stations a priority. Build south from Lindbergh and out in both directions from Lee Street. Tap into the Green Line at Joseph E. Boone or Bankhead. Eventually, figure out how to tap into the Blue Line at Inman Park or Hulsey, if available.
    The development is already here. Without high-capacity transit to provide car-free mobility, the BeltLine will be a complete mess. We’re already years behind. What will it take to get MARTA on the ball?Report

  26. Steve February 3, 2023 11:24 am

    unfortunately Atlanta has a prejudice against mass transit. When I moved here I was told MARTA was code for “Moving Africans Rapidly Thru Atlanta”, and people in Marietta voted down extending it there because they didn’t want poor [black] folk ‘coming in from Atlanta’.
    My wife’s colleagues were APPALLED she rode the bus 3 miles to work [“You can’t do that, only poor people use the bus, it’s Dangerous…”]
    It’s probably a relic of the racist south, but it’s still alive and well. Other cities more experienced with mass public transit (and less prejudice) don’t even argue about it, everyone rides the bus or train, and it’s built to cover the whole city, not just the rich peoples suburbs or favorite project.
    If this snobbery didn’t exist Atlanta would already have trains out to all suburbs and buses running every 5 minutes through all connecting nodes.
    But, here we are. Building one old fashioned light-rail line on the beltline is a dumb idea. How about running more frequent buses and making streets safe for bikes! Atlanta hasn’t even done the basics. MARTA already has the data on where people want it.Report

  27. Dana Blankenhorn February 3, 2023 12:23 pm

    What is the energy cost of running something with wheels vs. the same vehicle running on rails?

    The problem with rails is they’re fixed. They’re only used on a schedule, which is also fixed.

    We’re entering an era of custom, small, scaled transport. Anything from a scooter to a bus runs with the same basic engine, and the same technology, similar efficiency. This wasn’t true 50 years ago/ You needed the scale of rail to make electric transport real. Now you don’t.

    So consider this. Run something wheeled on the Beltline, in the way you want the rail to run. See how it does. If it’s great, and there’s an energy benefit to rail, put in the rail. But run the experiment first.Report

  28. Turner Hedenkoff February 3, 2023 2:36 pm

    I don’t get the complaint about fixed rails. The BeltLine runs through the core of Atlanta, through 40+ neighborhoods, including some of its most densely populated ones. What exactly would have to happen for it to no longer be a destination?
    And do you really want to pave more of the BeltLine, knowing how poorly we maintain roads around here? If you think power lines would look bad, as one earlier commenter said, wait ’til it’s covered with steel plates.Report

  29. Scott February 13, 2023 2:00 pm

    Street traffic is only going to get worse over time as Atlanta’s population grows. Light rail with dedicated right of way or priority on roadways is a great addition to Marta’s heavy rail lines. Construction of Infill stations are pretty cheap and should be a priority for Marta.

    The whole point of the Beltline was to encourage denser development that can support transit. BRT is an option, but i think people underestimate the long term cost vs rail. We’ve been waiting decades for this and all we have so far is a fancy sidewalk, some trees, and art. Not even sure if the “affordable housing” has actually materialized. We need to do what we should have done first and build the transit. It’s too bad the initial streetcar was built as a developer boondoggle. But, that’s typical for Atlanta. Most Atlantans are eager to stop sitting in traffic and ride transit when it is an option. Too many competing interests that don’t have the citizens best interests at heart.Report


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